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Learn more about borehole images
Whether you want to try borehole image log interpretation yourself or just want to find out more about what information borehole image logs can contain then this section is for you.
OVERVIEW OF BOREHOLE IMAGING
Lai, J., Wang, G., Wang, S., Cao, J., Li, M., Pang, X., Han, C., Fan, X., Yang, L., He, Z. and Qin, Z., (2018). A review on the applications of image logs in structural analysis and sedimentary characterization. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 95, 139-166.
Comprehensive and up to date review paper including information on imaging tools, processing workflows, core orientation, image facies (with examples), fracture identification and classification, in-situ stress, structural analysis of dip data, and palaeocurrent analysis. Good reference list.
Pöppelreiter, C., García-Carballido, and Kraaijveld, M., (2010). Dipmeter and borehole image technology: AAPG Memoir 92.
A good, fairly recent, introduction to image logs covering all things from image data QC and processing to structural and sedimentological interpretation. Includes some nice case studies of fluvial and deep-water deposits.
O.P. Wennberg, F. De Oliveira Ramalho, M. Virgolino Mafia, F. Lapponi, A.S. Chandler, L.E. Gomis Cartesio, David W. Hunt, (2023). The characteristics of natural open fractures in acoustic borehole image logs from the pre-salt Barra Velha formation, Santos Basin, Brazil, Journal of Structural Geology, Volume 167, 104794.
Nice new paper that used acoustic images to characterise natural fractures and their relationship to permeability in carbonate reservoirs.
Brekke, H., and Roenitz, T., (2021). Using high-resolution microresistivity image logs to reconstruct paleoenvironments and stratal architectures: An example from the McMurray Formation, Leismer area, northeastern Alberta, Canada. AAPG Bulletin, 105(8), 1563-1593.
Probably the best published example currently available of the use of borehole images for high-resolution subsurface stratigraphic architecture studies. Well worth a read.
Brekke H., MacEachern, J.A., Roenitz, T., Dashtgard, S.E., (2017). The use of microresistivity image logs for facies interpretations: an example in point-bar deposits of the McMurray Formation, Alberta, Canada. AAPG Bull 101(5), 655–682.
Really nice examples of how to interpret image facies. Great paper all-round, worth a read.
Bailey, A.H., King, R.C., Holford, S.P., and Hand, M., (2016). Extending interpretations of natural fractures from the wellbore using 3D attributes: The Carnarvon Basin, Australia. Interpretation, 4(1), SB107-SB129.
Does what it says on the tin.
Bal, A.A., Corley, B., Forgang., S., Gold, R., Guzman, A., Itskoovich, G., Le, F., and Gaagar., G.R., (2015). High-definition images obtained from low-resistivity, low-contrast deepwater deposits in Gulf of Mexico and southeast Asia using an OBM multi-frequency resistivity imager. SPWLA 56th Annual Logging Symposium, Long Beach, California, July 18-22.
Contains examples of image textures and dip patterns through mass transport deposits (MTDs) and slump axial trend determination from stereonet analysis.
Bailey, A., King, R., Holford, S., Sage, J., Backe, G. and Hand, M., (2014). Remote sensing of subsurface fractures in the Otway Basin, South Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 119(8), 6591-6612.
Great study integrating fractures observed in borehole images and seismic data, and in-situ stress features, with core examples.
Thompson, L. (2009). Atlas of borehole imagery, 2nd edition. AAPG Discovery Series 13.
Useful digital-only resource with nice examples of various borehole facies, features, and artefacts. Currently out of print.
Donselaar, M.E., Schmidt, J.M., (2005). Integration of outcrop and borehole image logs for high-resolution facies interpretation: example from a fluvial fan in the Ebro basin, Spain. Sedimentology, 52, 1021–1042.
Rare example of borehole images compared to their outcrop equivalents.
Bal, A.A., Prosser, J.D., and Magee, T.J., (2002). Sedimentology of the Mungaroo Formation in the Echo-Yodel Field: a borehole image perspective. In Keep, M., and Moss, S.J., (eds) The Sedimentary Basins of Western Australia 3, Proceedings of the Western Australian Basins Symposium, Perth, Western Australia, 2002.
Nice examples of dip azimuth walkout plots for both structural interpretation and for palaeocurrent analysis.
Prosser, J., Buck, S., Saddler, S., and Hilton, V., (1999). Methodologies for multi-well sequence analysis using borehole image and dipmeter data. In Lovell, M.A., and Harvey, P.K., (eds) 1999. Borehole Imaging: applications and case histories. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 159, 91-121.
Early, but still relevant, example of borehole image log analysis including integration of ichnology and core analysis. Nice examples of dip azimuth walkout plots for structural analysis and the identification of unconformities.
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